Now every act of knowledge is accomplished by the production in the intellect of a representation of the object known; from this head, then the process offers a certain analogy with generation, which is the production by a living being of a being partaking of the same nature; and the analogy is only so much the more striking when there is question of this act of Divine knowledge, the eternal term of which is a substantial being, consubstantial within the knowing subject. Our Baptism initiates us into the very life of God by power of the Holy Spirit. "He shall not speak of Himself", says St. Augustine (Tractate 99 on the Gospel of John, no. This teaching forms part of the Creed of Constantinople, as it is called, where the symbol refers to the Holy Ghost, "Who is also our Lord and Who gives life; Who proceeds from the Father, Who is adored and glorified together with the Father and the Son; Who spoke by the prophets". ? The Father and the Son love one another from all eternity, with a perfect ineffable love; the term of this infinite fruitful mutual love is Their Spirit Who is co-eternal and con-substantial with Them. Adhering to the most probable views on the subject, we may at once classify the charismata and explain the meaning of most of them as follows. xxxiv in P.G., LXXV, 585); "When the Holy Ghost comes into our hearts, He makes us like to God, because He proceeds from the Father and the Son"; and again (Epist., xvii, Ad Nestorium, De excommunicatione in P.G., LXXVII, 117): "The Holy Ghost is not unconnected with the Son, for He is called the Spirit of Truth, and Christ is the Truth; so He proceeds from Him as well as from God the Father." … Its full force can be grasped only in relation to the primary anointing accomplished by the Holy Spirit, that of Jesus. . Being one among the 'Triune God' the Holy Spirit helps us all come closer to our spirituality and faith through the seven gifts. .One the Holy Ghost, having His subsistence from God. Why then should you refuse to believe that He proceeds also from the Son, since He is also the Spirit of the Son? My email address is webmaster at The ‘divine kiss’ is indeed an apt name for the Holy Spirit, by whom Mary conceived Christ. One the Lord, one of one, God of God, invisible of invisible. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1910. St. Cyril of Alexandria remarks that the words: "He shall receive of mine" signify "the nature" which the Holy Ghost has from the Son, as the Son has His from the Father (De Trinit., dialog. The Son is, in the language of Scripture, the image of the Invisible God, His Word, His uncreated wisdom. Theol. Likewise you hear the Apostle declare: 'God hath sent the Spirit of His Son into your hearts. In it he proposes that the Holy Spirit be referred to in the feminine. "Holy Ghost." This title and the theory connected with it, like the theory of the fruits of the Holy Ghost and that of the sins against the Holy Ghost, imply what theologians call appropriation. They are the gifts of wisdom, understanding, counsel, fortitude, knowledge, piety (godliness), and fear of the Lord. vi, in P.G., LXXV, 1011). Let us St. Peter asserts the same identity when he thus remonstrates with Ananias (Acts 5:3-4): "Why hath Satan tempted thy heart, that thou shouldst lie to the Holy Ghost . [A]fter the invocation of the Holy Spirit [water] becomes the efficacious sacramental sign of new birth: just as the gestation of our first birth took place in water, so the water of Baptism truly signifies that our birth into the divine life is given to us in the Holy Spirit. The Holy Spirit as a dove in the Heavenly Trinity joined to the Earthly Trinity through the Incarnation of the Son, by Murillo, c. St. As to final impenitence it is absolute; and this is easily understood, for even God cannot pardon where there is no repentance, and the moment of death is the fatal instant after which no mortal sin is remitted. Spirit of holiness. The sins against the Holy Ghost are said to be unpardonable, but the meaning of this assertion will vary very much according to which of the three explanations given above is accepted. If God’s law was written on tablets of stone “by the finger of God,” then the “letter from Christ” entrusted to the care of the apostles, is written “with the Spirit of the living God, not on tablets of stone, but on tablets of human hearts” [Exodus 31:18; 2 Corinthians 3:3]. However, as it proved a stumbling-block to the Greeks Pope Leo III disapproved of it; and, though he entirely agreed with the Franks on the question of the doctrine, he advised them to omit the new word. In the second and third centuries, the dynamic or modalistic. 1677. The Son proceeds from the Father; the Holy Ghost proceeds from the Father and the Son. . Spirit of life. St. Paul was careful (1 Corinthians 12-14) to restrict authoritatively the use of these charismata within the ends for which they were bestowed, and thus insist upon their subordination to the power of the hierarchy. As we are utterly incapable of otherwise fixing the meaning of the mysterious mode affecting this relation of origin, we apply to it the name spiration, the signification of which is principally negative and by way of contrast, in the sense that it affirms a Procession peculiar to the Holy Ghost and exclusive of filiation. Not only is the Second Person alone called Son in the Scriptures, not only is He alone said to be begotten, but He is also called the only Son of God; the ancient symbol that bears the name of Saint Athanasius states expressly that "the Holy Ghost comes from the Father and from the Son not made, not created, not generated, but proceeding". This fact is undisputed as far as the Western Fathers are concerned; but the Greeks deny it in the case of the Easterns. If the opinion be adhered to, and it has strong arguments to support it, which considers that the developments of the Creed in what concerns the Holy Ghost were approved by the Council of Constantinople (381), at once it might be laid down that the bishops at Ephesus (431) certainly did not think of condemning or blaming those of Constantinople. Thus, studying the person and nature of the Holy Spirit, though sometimes neglected, is crucial for us as Catholic apologists and as Catholics in general. The Holy Spirit, as His name indicates, is Holy in virtue of His origin, His spiration; He comes therefore from a holy principle; now holiness resides in the will, as wisdom is in the intellect. . Lots of great Catholic links too. He had been informed that certain Christians held that the Third Person of the Blessed Trinity was a creature. It is likewise an article of faith that the Holy Ghost does not proceed, like the Second Person of the Trinity, by way of generation. Funk, "Kirchengeschichte", Paderborn, 1902, p. 243). This article was transcribed for New Advent by W.S. cit., 325): "I confess the Lord Jesus Christ, Son of the Father most High, one of one; I recognize Him as one God with the Father and the Holy Ghost. Let us take, for instance, the account given by St. Matthew which is more complete than that of the other Synoptics. Batiffol, "L'Église naissante et le catholicisme" (Paris, 1909), 36. . Jesus also calls him "the Spirit of truth" (Jn16:13). (CCC, 700). Theophilus of Antioch, who sometimes gives to the Holy Ghost, as to the Son, the name of Wisdom (sophia), mentions besides (To Autolycus I.7 and II.18) the three terms theos, logos, sophia and, being the first to apply the characteristic word that was afterwards adopted, says expressly (II.15) that they form a trinity (trias). In what does it consist? But the Fathers of the Church, commenting on the Gospel texts we are treating of, did not confine themselves to the meaning given above. Holy Spirit, also called Paraclete or Holy Ghost, in Christian belief, the third person of the Trinity.Numerous outpourings of the Holy Spirit are mentioned in the Acts of the Apostles, in which healing, prophecy, the expelling of demons (), and speaking in tongues (glossolalia) are particularly associated with the activity of the Spirit. ): "One is God, Father of the living Word, of the subsisting Wisdom. We need not dwell at length on the precise meaning of the Procession in God. Forget, Jacques. In the form of tongues “as of fire,” the Holy Spirit rests on the disciples on the morning of Pentecost and fills them with himself  [Acts 2:3–4]. Anointing with oil is synonymous with the Holy Spirit. Terms for the Teaching Ministry of the Holy Spirit Certain names ascribed to the Holy Spirit tend to emphasize His role in teaching spiritual truth. Transcription. Most of these conclusions he supports by means of Scriptural texts, a few from amongst which are given above. In His case, to hear is to know, and to know is to be. On the dogma see: ST. THOMAS, Summa Theol., I, Q. xxxvi-xliii; FRANZELIN, De Deo Trino (Rome, 1881); C. PESCH, Pælectiones dogmaticæ, II (Freiburg im Br., 1895) POHLE, Lehrbuch der Dogmatik, I (Paderborn, 1902); TANQUEREY, Synop. And yet the same writer had said, a little higher (op. Having descended on them at Pentecost, He will guide them in their work (Acts 8:29), for He will inspire the new prophets (Acts 11:28; 13:9), as He inspired the Prophets of the Old Law (Acts 7:51). ii de verbis Domini, c. v) one of the most difficult in Scripture, they have proposed different interpretations or explanations. de la théol. Just as there is only one Father, just as there is only one Lord or one Son, so there is only one Spirit, Who is, consequently, the Spirit of both. That is also the reason why He is so often called par excellence, in the writings of the Fathers, Love and Charity. Considered with regard to the Church, the same Spirit is truth, grace, a pledge of immortality, a principle of union with God; intimately united to the Church, He gives the sacraments their efficacy and virtue (III.17.2, III.24.1, IV.33.7 and V.8.1). Could there then be two spirits, one the spirit of the Father, the other the spirit of the Son? In the other two explanations, according to St. Thomas, the sin against the Holy Ghost is remissable — not absolutely and always, but inasmuch as (considered in itself) it has not the claims and extenuating circumstance, inclining towards a pardon, that might be alleged in the case of sins of weakness and ignorance. Several Old Testament manifestations of the Holy Spirit took place via clouds and light. Thus, the Father alone is principium absque principio, aitia anarchos prokatarktike, and, comparatively, the Son is an intermediate principle. — Cf. 6-7. To this list we must at least add, as being found in the other two passages indicated, the gift of government, the gift of helps, and perhaps what Paul calls distributio and misericordia. Please help support the mission of New Advent and get the full contents of this website as an instant download. The intercession is our transformation in Christ. 1 Peter 4:14. Cookie information is stored in your browser and performs functions such as recognising you when you return to our website and helping our team to understand which sections of the website you find most interesting and useful. This doctrine was defined in the following words by the Second Ecumenical Council of Lyons [Denzinger, "Enchiridion" (1908), n. 460]: "We confess that the Holy Ghost proceeds eternally from the Father and the Son, not as from two principles, but as from one principle, not by two spirations, but by one single spiration." These sins are commonly reckoned six: despair, presumption, impenitence or a fixed determination not to repent, obstinacy, resisting the known truth, and envy of another's spiritual welfare. She previously served as editor for Catechist and at Catholic Digest, print editions. While corroborating and explaining the testimony of Scripture, Tradition brings more clearly before us the various stages of the evolution of this doctrine. . Using these names to name the ineffable has both benefits and disadvantages. Regrettably, I can't reply to every letter, but I greatly appreciate your feedback — especially notifications about typographical errors and inappropriate ads. 7. the Creation, because He is the principle of the two other Persons; to the Son we attribute wisdom and the works of wisdom, because He proceeds from the Father by the Intellect; to the Holy Ghost we attribute the operations of grace and the sanctification of souls, and in particular spiritual gifts and fruits, because He proceeds from the Father and the Son as Their mutual love and is called in Holy Writ the goodness and the charity of God. We will cite, therefore, a few witnesses from among the latter. His advice was unheeded by the Franks; and, as the conduct and schism of Photius seemed to justify the Westerns in paying no more regard to the feelings of the Greeks, the addition of the words was accepted by the Roman Church under Benedict VIII (cf. In a word, the irremissableness of the sins against the Holy Ghost is exclusively on the part of the sinner, on account of the sinner's act. Nihil Obstat. . From this it follows that, in Clement's view, kyrios was equally applicable to ho theos (the Father), ho kyrios Iesous Christos, and to pneuma to hagion; and that we have three witnesses of equal authority, whose Trinity, moreover, is the foundation of Christian faith and hope. The distinct use of the two prepositions, ek (from) and dia (through), implies nothing else. In 46.6 (Funk, "Patres apostolici", 2nd ed., I,158), we read that "we have only one God, one Christ, one only Spirit of grace within us, one same vocation in Christ". Such a reason will not bear examination. It is St. Athanasius who does so in his "Letters to Serapion" (P.G., XXVI, col. 525 sq.). in everything I praise Thee, I bless Thee, I glorify Thee by the eternal and celestial pontiff Jesus Christ, Thy well beloved Son, by whom, to Thee, with Him and with the Holy Ghost, glory now and for ever! spec., I, II (Rome, 1907-8). When Christ comes up from the water of his baptism, the Holy Spirit, in the form of a dove, comes down upon him and remains with him [see Matthew 3:16]. cit., lib. Jesus will say of the Spirit: “I came to cast fire upon the earth; and would that it were already kindled” [Luke 12:49]! St. Polycarp (d. 155), in his torments, thus professed his faith in the Three Adorable Persons ("Martyrium sancti Polycarpi" in Funk, op. Christians are anointed, too, in Confirmation. In the first of these three passages we find nine charismata mentioned: the gift of speaking with wisdom, the gift of speaking with knowledge, faith, the grace of healing, the gift of miracles, the gift of prophecy, the gift of discerning spirits, the gift of tongues, the gift of interpreting speeches. . In Baptism, Confirmation, and Holy Orders, a holy seal on the soul accompanies the anointing. In The Catholic Encyclopedia. MLA citation. God is pure spirit. . Spirit of glory and of God. elect, according to the foreknowledge of God the Father, unto the sanctification of the Spirit, unto obedience and sprinkling of the blood of Jesus Christ". There had been brought to Christ "one possessed with a devil, blind and dumb: and he healed him, so that he spoke and saw". Imprimatur. ", In 304, the martyr St. Vincent said (Ruinart, op. But, from the fact that the disputed expression was authorized by the Council of Chalcedon, in 451, we conclude that the prohibition of the Council of Ephesus was never understood, and ought not to be understood, in an absolute sense. He proceeds, not by way of generation, but by way of spiration, from the Father and the Son together, as from a single principle. He seems to have been the first among the Fathers to affirm His Divinity in a clear and absolutely precise manner. . Dear Catholic Exchange: I have a question regarding the gender of the Holy Spirit. 2): "If it be said through Him, it is said solely in order that no one may imagine that the Son is not generated": It may be added that the terminology used by the Eastern and Western writers, respectively, to express the idea is far from being invariable. What did God stand in need of? The latter, as it is their duty to teach the revealed truth and to preserve it from error, possess, by Divine authority, the power and right to draw up and propose to the faithful such confessions of faith as circumstances may demand. The Holy Spirit, symbolized by a white dove, is one among the Holy Trinity and holds great importance in Christianity. Now with Google Translator for non-English speakers. They considered that, quite apart from the question of doctrine involved by the expression, the insertion was made in violation of a decree of the Council of Ephesus, forbidding anyone "to produce, write, or compose a confession of faith other than the one defined by the Fathers of Nicæa". As to the Holy Ghost, according to the common doctrine of theologians, He proceeds through the will. St. Paul ends his Second Epistle to the Corinthians (13:13) with this formula of benediction, which might be called a blessing of the Trinity: "The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ, and the charity of God, and the communication of the Holy Ghost be with you all." This website uses cookies so that we can provide you with the best user experience possible. S., n. 19, in P.G., XXVI, 1212), and concluded: "We say that the Son of God is also the source of the Spirit.". Spirit of Knowledge: Isaiah 11:2 4. This conclusion is so much the more indisputable as all admit the similar argument to explain why the Holy Ghost is called the Spirit of the Father. On the mountain of Transfiguration, the Spirit in the “cloud came and overshadowed” Jesus, Moses and Elijah, Peter, James and John, and “a voice came out of the cloud, saying, ‘This is my Son, my Chosen; listen to him’” [Luke 9:34–35]! In reality the thought expressed by both Greeks and Latins is one and the same, only the manner of expressing it is slightly different: the Greek formula ek tou patros dia tou ouiou expresses directly the order according to which the Father and the Son are the principle of the Holy Ghost, and implies their equality as principle; the Latin formula expresses directly this equality, and implies the order. Answer: The Holy Spirit is known by many names and titles, most of which denote some function or aspect of His ministry. Tixeront, "Hist. The Greeks were astonished and protested, explanations were given by the Latins, and many discussions followed. Spirit of life: Rom 8 : 2, Rev. What do you know about Christianity and the Holy Spirit? (a) The Holy Ghost is called the Spirit of Christ (Romans 8:9), the Spirit of the Son (Galatians 4:6), the Spirit of Jesus (Acts 16:7). A little later, St. Formerly that was the common opinion, and even in recent times it has been held by authorities like Hefele, Hergenröther, and Funk; other historians, amongst whom are Harnack and Duchesne, are of the contrary opinion; but all agree in admitting that the creed of which we are speaking was received and approved by the Council of Chalcedon, in 451, and that, at least from that time, it became the official formula of Catholic orthodoxy. These terms imply a relation of the Spirit to the Son, which can only be a relation of origin. So, making every allowance for the feebleness of our intellects in knowing, and the unsuitability of our words for expressing the mysteries of the Divine life, if we can grasp how the word generation, freed from all the imperfections of the material order may be applied by analogy to the Procession of the Word, so we may see that the term can in no way befittingly applied to the Procession of the Holy Ghost. 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